Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality and results in major burden both to individual patients and society as a whole. Different forms of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) exist to treat patients with End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD), all of them complex and very expensive.

Among the European Member States, there is an enormous variability in the overall management of CKD and ESKD that can be attributed to various factors. Such factors include the local availability of differing treatment modalities and their related costs, the orientations proposed by the treating physicians or the consent of patients. The existing complexity of influencing factors increases the risk that the chosen treatments might not always be the most appropriate or efficient ones.

In order to increase knowledge regarding the effects of differing treatment modalities and to provide equal access to good quality care, while simultaneously reducing the overall costs, it is essential to obtain comprehensive information on all factors that have an impact on CKD management as well as on the outcomes. Such knowledge is intended to support optimal treatment and, in consequence, good long-term outcomes for patients suffering ESKD.